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Information about NEF file format

Name NEF
Full name Nikon Electronic Format
File extension .nef
MIME type image/nef
Developed by Nikon Inc.
Type of format Image File
Description NEF otherwise known as the Nikon Electronic Format is Nikon's RAW file format. RAW file formats contain minimally processed data from the image sensor of the digital camera - the metadata includes information about the lens, the settings, the camera’s identification and other data. RAW files are named so because they are not yet processed and therefore are not ready to be printed or edited with a bitmap graphics editor. RAW image formats are intended to capture as closely as possible the characteristics of the scene to include light intensity and colours.
Technical details The structure of RAW files, including the ISO standard RAW image format ISO 12234-2 follows a common pattern - a short header, camera sensor metadata, image metadata such as exposure settings, camera and lens model, date and sometimes the location. A thumbnail, a smaller JPEG file for quick viewing and the sensor image data. NEF is based on the TIFF format.
Associated programs Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Photoshop Lightroom, Paint Shop Pro, Picasa, digiKam
Wiki https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raw_image_format